内容纲要

pgrep 命令

pgrep命令以名称为依据从运行进程队列中查找进程,并显示查找到的进程id。每一个进程ID以一个十进制数表示,通过一个分割字符串和下一个ID分开,默认的分割字符串是一个新行。对于每个属性选项,用户可以在命令行上指定一个以逗号分割的可能值的集合。

语法 和 选项

[root@Linux ~]# pgrep -h

Usage:
 pgrep [options] <pattern>

Options:
 -d, --delimiter <string>  specify output delimiter
 -l, --list-name           list PID and process name
 -a, --list-full           list PID and full command line
 -v, --inverse             negates the matching
 -w, --lightweight         list all TID
 -c, --count               count of matching processes
 -f, --full                use full process name to match
 -g, --pgroup <PGID,...>   match listed process group IDs
 -G, --group <GID,...>     match real group IDs
 -n, --newest              select most recently started
 -o, --oldest              select least recently started
 -P, --parent <PPID,...>   match only child processes of the given parent
 -s, --session <SID,...>   match session IDs
 -t, --terminal <tty,...>  match by controlling terminal
 -u, --euid <ID,...>       match by effective IDs
 -U, --uid <ID,...>        match by real IDs
 -x, --exact               match exactly with the command name
 -F, --pidfile <file>      read PIDs from file
 -L, --logpidfile          fail if PID file is not locked
 --ns <PID>                match the processes that belong to the same
                           namespace as <pid>
 --nslist <ns,...>         list which namespaces will be considered for
                           the --ns option.
                           Available namespaces: ipc, mnt, net, pid, user, uts

 -h, --help     display this help and exit
 -V, --version  output version information and exit

For more details see pgrep(1).
选项 描述
-l 显示PID和进程名称
-a 列出PID和完整的命令行
-f 使用完整的进程名来匹配
-v 与条件不符合的程序
-x 与命令名完全匹配
-o 仅显示找到的最小进程号
-n 仅显示找到的最大进程号
-P 只匹配给定父进程的子进程
-g 匹配列出的进程组id
-t 控制终端匹配
-u 指定进程的有效用户ID匹配

man page

PGREP(1)        User Commands                   PGREP(1)

NAME
       pgrep, pkill - look up or signal processes based on name and other attributes

SYNOPSIS
       pgrep [options] pattern
       pkill [options] pattern

DESCRIPTION
       pgrep looks through the currently running processes and lists the process IDs which match
       the selection criteria to stdout.  All the criteria have to match.  For example,

              $ pgrep -u root sshd

       will only list the processes called sshd AND owned by root.  On the other hand,

              $ pgrep -u root,daemon

       will list the processes owned by root OR daemon.

       pkill will send the specified signal (by default SIGTERM) to each process instead of 
       listing them on stdout.

OPTIONS
       -signal
       --signal signal
              Defines the signal to send to each matched process.  Either the numeric or the symbolic 
              signal name can be used.  (pkill only.)

       -c, --count
              Suppress normal output; instead print a count of matching processes.  When count does 
              not match anything, e.g. returns zero, the command will return non-zero value.

       -d, --delimiter delimiter
              Sets the string used to delimit each process ID in the output (by default a newline).
              (pgrep only.)

       -f, --full
              The pattern is normally only matched against the process name.  When -f is set, 
              the full command line is used.

       -g, --pgroup pgrp,...
              Only match processes in the process group IDs listed.  Process group 0 is translated 
              into pgrep's or pkill's own process group.

       -G, --group gid,...
              Only match processes whose real group ID is listed.  Either the numerical or 
              symbolical value may be used.

       -l, --list-name
              List the process name as well as the process ID.  (pgrep only.)

       -a, --list-full
              List the full command line as well as the process ID.  (pgrep only.)

       -n, --newest
              Select only the newest (most recently started) of the matching processes.

       -o, --oldest
              Select only the oldest (least recently started) of the matching processes.

       -P, --parent ppid,...
              Only match processes whose parent process ID is listed.

       -s, --session sid,...
              Only match processes whose process session ID is listed.  Session ID 0 is translated 
              into pgrep's or pkill's own session ID.

       -t, --terminal term,...
              Only match processes whose controlling terminal is listed.  The terminal name should 
              be specified without the "/dev/" prefix.

       -u, --euid euid,...
              Only match processes whose effective user ID is listed.  Either the numerical or 
              symbolical value may be used.

       -U, --uid uid,...
              Only match processes whose real user ID is listed.  Either the numerical or 
              symbolical value may be used.

       -v, --inverse
              Negates the matching.  This option is usually used in pgrep's context.  In pkill's 
              context the short option is disabled to avoid accidental usage of the option.

       -w, --lightweight
              Shows all thread ids instead of pids in pgrep's context.  In pkill's context this 
              option is disabled.

       -x, --exact
              Only match processes whose names (or command line if -f is specified) exactly 
              match the pattern.

       -F, --pidfile file
              Read PID's from file.  This option is perhaps more useful for pkill than pgrep.

       -L, --logpidfile
              Fail if pidfile (see -F) not locked.

       --ns pid
              Match processes that belong to the same namespaces. Required to run as root to 
              match processes from other users. See --nslist for how to limit which 
              namespaces to match.

       --nslist name,...
              Match only the provided namespaces. Available namespaces: ipc, mnt, net, pid, user,uts.

       -V, --version
              Display version information and exit.

       -h, --help
              Display help and exit.

OPERANDS
       pattern
              Specifies an Extended Regular Expression for matching against the process 
              names or command lines.

EXAMPLES
       Example 1: Find the process ID of the named daemon:

              $ pgrep -u root named

       Example 2: Make syslog reread its configuration file:

              $ pkill -HUP syslogd

       Example 3: Give detailed information on all xterm processes:

              $ ps -fp $(pgrep -d, -x xterm)

       Example 4: Make all netscape processes run nicer:

              $ renice +4 $(pgrep netscape)

EXIT STATUS
       0      One or more processes matched the criteria.
       1      No processes matched.
       2      Syntax error in the command line.
       3      Fatal error: out of memory etc.

NOTES
       The process name used for matching is limited to the 15 characters present in the output of 
       /proc/pid/stat.  Use the -f option to match against the complete command line, /proc/pid/cmdline.

       The running pgrep or pkill process will never report itself as a match.

BUGS
       The options -n and -o and -v can not be combined.  Let me know if you need to do this.

       Defunct processes are reported.

SEE ALSO
       ps(1), regex(7), signal(7), killall(1), skill(1), kill(1), kill(2)

STANDARDS
       pkill and pgrep were introduced in Sun's Solaris 7.  This implementation is fully compatible.

AUTHOR
       Kjetil Torgrim Homme ⟨kjetilho@ifi.uio.no⟩

REPORTING BUGS
       Please send bug reports to ⟨procps@freelists.org⟩

procps-ng                                                                                              
October 2012                                                                        PGREP(1)

pkill 命令